Apr 272010

At the end of March I left the dismal weather in the UK for the sunny Gambia to present at the first Pan-African Conference on Working Equines. The conference, entitled ‘Better Management, Improved Performance’ was organised by the World Association for Transport Animal Welfare and Studies (TAWS) in association with The Gambia Horse and Donkey Trust (GHDT). Speakers and experts with experience of working in The Gambia, Mali, Mauretania, Ethiopia, Morocco, Nigeria, Tanzania and Sudan attended for the 2 day seminar and then a field trip to the GHDT head-quarters.

The opening talks set the scene, describing the changing management systems of agriculture in The Gambia and the changing roles of cattle and equines in this sector. Dr Touray (Chairman of the Gambian Vet Council) explained that in the 1930s there were 30,000-40,000 cattle and now there are an estimated 425,000, a reflection of the intensification of cattle farming.

Thirty years ago, horses and donkeys were rare in The Gambia, with oxen providing the majority of the draught power, but now 87,000 cattle and equines are used for this purpose. There are now 25,000 horses and 40,000-50,000 donkeys in The Gambia working hard helping to plough fields, carry water and other loads on their backs or draw carts. [I nearly said ‘pull carts’ but one of the first lessons when you start learning about working horses is that they don’t ‘pull’ carts – they ‘push’ into their harnesses to move the cart. There are fun ways you can show this practically but they don’t work so well on paper…]

Introducing Equine Expertise to the Gambia

The dramatic and relatively rapid increase in the number of equines used in transportation and agriculture in a country with little experience of managing and caring for equines has resulted in welfare problems. Ill-health of the animals can be catastrophic for the farmers dependent on them as they can often only afford a single horse or donkey.

The Gambia Horse and Donkey Trust (GHDT) was set up in 2002 with the principle aim of improving the health and welfare of working equines and, in turn, reducing the poverty of their owners. It became apparent to the organisation that although animal health workers were taught extensively about livestock health and management, there was a lack of equine-specific training. The GHDT partnered with The Gambia College School of Agriculture to address this, and in 2008 and 2009 16 students were selected to be taught additional modules in equine health and management. The extra modules were funded by the GHDT, the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons’ (RCVS) Trust, the British Equine Veterinary Association (BEVA) Trust, the World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA), and the Donkey Sanctuary.

After the graduation ceremony, the students attended the seminar as professionals to learn from presentations and to participate in the exchange of ideas on the two central themes of management and prevention.

The Threat of Disease

The GHDT has been working in The Gambia since 2002, and in the eight years of providing basic veterinary support at the nearby markets, they have come across a range of diseases, some of which were previously unknown in The Gambia.

Some highlights from the presentations on disease:

  • Some of the diseases are really gruesome. For example, African Horse Sickness (AHS) is caused by a virus spread by midges and causes equines to cough up frothy fluid from nostril and mouth, and fluid buildup in the lungs. It is a highly infectious, distressing and deadly disease. Epizootic lymphangitis is another highly contagious disease; a fungus causes the lymph vessels to stand out, then nodules form along them, which then turn into abscesses exuding copious amounts of pus – gross. Strangles, a disease horse owners in the UK will be familiar with, has emerged as a significant problem. Jamie Gartsides presented lots of practical ideas on how this disease can be managed in rural settings as encountered across Africa.

  • GHDT had been reporting cases of equines with an unknown neurological disease with a high mortality rate. The horses can be seen to pace restlessly in circles. Laura Peachey (RVC) described research into the cause of the disease – most likely to be cerebral trypanosomiasis. Further work is needed to identify the specific strain involved and to provide appropriate treatment.
  • Most projects working with equines in developing countries include a de-worming programme. Chris Proudman (University of Liverpool) explained that research involving people in rural African communities has showed that ‘worms’ are not in the top five concerns to owners with respect to their donkeys and that owners do not recognise the signs of heavy parasite burden. The best way to control worms is the same world-over – a combination of faecal removal and strategic use of de-wormers. He reminded us that 80% of worms are in 20% of the hosts so when you do worm counts it is important to do this for all horses that live together. Faeces collection ‘poo picking’ was highlighted as an excellent method of preventing transmission, and in Africa this has additional economic benefits as faeces can be sold for fuel, fertilizer or even used as barter!
  • Between one third and one half of the world’s human population has no access to basic surgery, and for animals access is even less available. However, in his presentation Patrick Pollock (University of Glasgow) described how it is possible to perform many procedures under basic field conditions. Fortunately, many procedures can be done with the equine standing and sedated and with the use of local or regional nerve blocks. Indeed such techniques have several advantages and are therefore ideally suited to areas where standard surgical facilities are not available.
  • Another presentation that explored low-tech practical solutions was Alex Thiemann’s (The Donkey Sanctuary) appraisal of traditional solutions for the treatment of wounds and other conditions. Thiemann explained that the majority of the world’s population of working equines is located where access to modern/Western medicines and high-tech diagnostic equipment is limited, either by cost or availability. However, simple remedies and techniques can be effective and also empower local people to use their abilities successfully. Recipes were provided for alternative oral rehydration fluid, pain relief and wound treatments, and Thiemann revealed the secret treatment for donkeys that come to the Donkey Sanctuary with poor appetite and how to reverse hyperlipemia – copious amounts of ReadyBrek! Thiemann explained why some traditional treatments work – for example, sugar paste for wound treatment is an ancient Egyptian/Greek remedy that is still used in parts of Africa- the main action is antibacterial and can be especially useful for infected wounds.

Prevention Through Education

The need for education of owners to prevent some of these diseases and problems resulting from poor care was an ongoing theme and formed the focus of some of the presentations on the second day.

Some of the presentations had already described how communities can provide useful information about how common diseases are and what the local methods of treatment are. In my presentation I explained how WSPA (The World Society for the Protection of Animals for who I work) has been changing our approach to involve communities also in the solution. Our work to improve the welfare of horses in developing countries used to focus on providing treatment where it would otherwise be unavailable. We funded mobile clinics so that vets could reach the animals in need. However, this is very expensive, does not reach all the animals who need us and also we used to spend a lot of time patching animals up. We were more interested in really making a difference to the lives of equines, not just in treating their wounds but in making sure their needs, physical and mental well-being, were met. I have been trialling ways of working with communities that depend on working equines for their survival focussing on changing the way they are kept – e.g. through fun activities and discussions considering all the things a horse needs, and nurturing changes in their care. Using examples from my work in Cambodia, Nicaragua, Colombia, Uruguay and The Palestinian Territories I explained what we have learnt about working in this way and shared some of our exciting results. For example, in Cambodia owners have been making their stables much bigger so that the ponies can lie down properly and get proper rest, and in Uruguay incidences of colic decreased by 74% as a result of owners clearing grazing areas of rubbish so preventing horses from eating plastic bags.

Other educational programmes running across Africa were described. For example, Amadou Doumbia (SPANA) explained that most of the problems faced by working equines in Mali are because of the way they are managed and worked. SPANA devised training programmes for representatives of groups of owners about how to care for their animals. The results were impressive – in one project area mortality reduced from 62% to 5%, and wound incidence from 42% to 11%, highlighting that education can lead to improved welfare.

Putting Theory into Practice

The two-day seminar was followed by an optional extension to the GHDT base in the village of Sambel Kunda, 230 km and an 8 hour journey from the comfort of the conference hotel. Here delegates got a taste of how horses and donkeys are kept in rural areas.

There were some practical demonstrations. Ann Varley led a lively session in which some bemused horses and donkeys were painted (it washed off afterwards!) to show their skeletons and then to demonstrate how harness design should enable maximum comfort to the animals and maximum efficiency.

Anyone who thought that learning about cart design would involve donkeys doing the work was in for a surprise as Professor Hovell harnessed people to the carts so that delegates could truly feel the difference between the effects that different designs had on the ease of drawing a cart.

Making a Difference

As eloquently summarised by Heather Armstrong (GHDT) “Horse and donkey owners across Africa face significant challenges to keep their animals in good condition to work productively. Some of these challenges can be overcome with simple changes in their management and some challenges are more difficult to deal with. Equines are vital to the economy of the country and they and their owners deserve our support. It is essential that Gambians are taught about how to care and manage these animals and GHDT has been working to achieve this.”

The conference brought together delegates whose work spans many countries in Africa and provided an opportunity to learn from each other and to consider how to best work in often challenging field conditions. The practical demonstrations were particularly memorable and I wouldn’t be surprised if a few more horses and donkeys across the world might shortly find themselves being painted!

Many organisations are working help the equines that work so hard for people all around the world and donations are always welcome. Some examples:

By Suzanne Rogers, The World Society for the Protection of Animals (SuzanneRogers@wspa-international.org)

Apr 202010

When considering a way to train their horse using positive reinforcement, most horse owners find themselves investigating clicker training. However, once the horse owner starts to read into clicker training, or visits a few clinics, it soon becomes apparent that different trainers use clicker training in different ways. Clicker training is not one singular technique, but a tool, applied in different ways by different trainers. The benefits and potential difficulties associated with each of these approaches to clicker training will be discussed in this article, with the aim that this will hopefully this will abate some of the confusion that can be experienced by owners new to clicker training.

Before we begin, I will quickly review the basics of clicker training theory as applied to practical horse training. Very simply clicker training is a form of positive reinforcement training. Positive reinforcement being the addition of something pleasurable to the horses environment in consequence to the horse performing a desirable behaviour. Positive reinforcement encourages the desired behaviour to reoccur in the future. Anything that the horse finds pleasurable, for example food rewards or stroking, can be used for the purposes of positive reinforcement training, although food rewards are most commonly used. During positive reinforcement the reward must be delivered immediately as the desired behaviour is performed by the horse, so that only the desired behaviour is reinforced.

The definition of positive reinforcement – An increase in the future frequency of a behaviour due to the addition of a pleasurable stimulus immediately following said behaviour.

Positive reinforcement alone is a very effective training method, however, it relies on the immediate delivery of the reward as the horse performs the desired behaviour. Clicker training makes reinforcement of behaviour at the correct moment easier, because, rather than having to deliver the reward to the horse’s mouth at the moment they perform the desire behaviour, the click noise can mark the desire behaviour and the reward can be delivered as soon as possible. The association of the click noise with food reward, transforms the click noise into a secondary reinforcer, which simply means that the click has taken on reinforcing properties and thus become rewarding. Once an association between the click and food reward has been establish, and the click has become a secondary reinforcer, the click can then be used to communicate to the horse when they have performed a desired behaviour. Marking the behaviour using the audible ‘click’ of the clicker is beneficial to any training where the trainer can’t deliver reward immediately following a correct behavioural response, e.g. when the horse is at distance or being ridden. The click of the clicker is a good sound for marking correct behavioural responses because it is short and crisp. Some trainers prefer to use a ‘cluck’ sound made by the tongue for the same purpose. Currently, there is no scientific evidence to suggest that the use of a tongue ‘cluck’ is less or more effective than the use of a clicker.

The definition of a secondary reinforcer – A secondary reinforcer, also known as a conditioned reinforcer, is a stimulus (such as a click) that when consistently paired with a pleasurable stimulus (such as food) functions as a reinforcer.

The use of the click sound within clicker training has been applied in different ways by different horse trainers. The key factor, which will be discussed in this article, is how different trainers apply the clicker practically during training. To address this topic, we will consider the use of the click as a terminal bridge and as an intermediate bridge. Now the key to understanding the use of clicker in training is to understand, but not get bogged down in, the terminology. I will explain the theory, but also how the theory is practically applied in everyday horse training. The first thing that needs to be explained is that the click of the clicker is know as a bridging stimulus, this is because it bridges the gap between the desired behaviour and the arrival of the food reward. The click says to the horse ‘yes that’s the behaviour I want and your reward is coming’. However, the click can be one of two types of bridge. It can be a terminal bridge that says ‘yes, well done, finished’, or an intermediate bridge which says to the horse ‘yes, keep going your on the right track’. In practise this mean that the click sound either signals to the horse that they were performing the desired behaviour and they can stop for reward (a terminal bridge), or in the case of the intermediate bridge, the click signals to the horse that they are doing the correct behaviour and to continue until the terminal bridge, which will be a different signal.

It is most common in training to use the click sound of the clicker as a terminal bridge. In practical terms this means that the click is used to signal to the horse to stop and receive their reward. For example, if you were teaching a horse to touch a target with there muzzle, you would click the horse once they touch the target and then reinforce the behaviour with the food reward. If you wanted the targeting behaviour to last longer you would shape the behaviour by gradually leaving longer periods of time between the start of the targeting behaviour and the click. This method of clicker training is used by Alexander Kurland (2001) and Becky Holden, amongst others. There are both pros and cons to this method.

The pros of the terminal bridge clicker training method –

◦This method can be used to teach everything, from basic ground work to advanced riding exercises.

◦The horse can be easily rewarded for desired behaviour, even at a distance or whilst ridden.

◦Owners can usually pick up this method easily under instruction.

The cons of the terminal bridge clicker training method –

◦The method doesn’t include a intermediate bridge stimulus so the horse can be told to stop to be rewarded but not to keep performing the same behaviour, instead the behaviour is modified using shaping or chaining.

Now to discuss the use of the clicker as an intermediate bridge stimulus. When the click sound is used as an intermediate bridge the click says to the horse – ‘Yes, keep going you’re on the right track’. Using the targeting example given earlier, to teach a horse to touch a target using the click as an intermediate bridge, the trainer would click the horse for touching the target to encourage the horse to continue touching the target, until the terminal stimulus was given. The click, which can occur a variable amount of times before the terminal stimulus is given, encourages the horse to continue the behaviour they are currently performing. Ben Hart (2008) is the most famous trainer that uses the clicker as an intermediate bridge stimulus. Ben trains using the hand going to the reward holder as the terminal stimulus. There are also pros and cons to the intermediate bridge method of clicker training.

The pros of the intermediate bridge clicker training method –

◦This method can be used to teach all ground work activities.

◦The horse can be easily rewarded for desired behaviour, even at a distance.

◦The horse can be given guidance as to whether or not the behaviour they are performing is desirable, and be given confidence to continue the behaviour, without stopping for reward.

The cons of the intermediate bridge clicker training method –

◦Some owners find applying the clicker as an intermediate bridge stimulus more difficult, although I suspect this is because most of the literature available describes the terminal bridge method.

◦The terminal bridge stimulus of this method of clicker training often isn’t audible, and thus this method is a little more difficult to apply if the horse can’t directly see the hander, e.g. during ridden work.

Both these methods of clicker training are effective modes of communication with the horse, as such both methods have been applied with great success to training horses for many jobs. Interestingly, neither method has been scientifically shown to be more effective than the other, therefore the deciding factor when choosing how to apply clicker training with your own horses must be which method best suits your horse, your ability and your training. I highly recommend reading literature from many different clicker trainers, and ideally, also seeing the methods demonstrated, before you decide which method will be best for you and your horse.

By Emma Lethbridge (www.emmalethbridge.com)

(Enjoyed this article? Then please donate a little to The Equine Independent to keep us writing without a subscription. You can donate via paypal to mail@theequineindependent.com. Even the smallest amount is greatly appreciated. Thank you for reading from everyone at EI.)


Alexandra Kurland (2001). Clicker Training For Your Horse. Ring Books.

Ben Hart (2008). The Art and Science of Clicker Training for Horses: A Positive Approach to Training Equines and Understanding Them. Souvenir Press Ltd.

Apr 122010

The science of behaviour does not yet have all the answers to the questions posed by our horses; in fact it does not have all the explanations for human behaviour and learning fully defined.

When dealing with the elements of behaviour which are unknown, our interpretations are supposition of behavioural intent. We make assumptions on the horse’s behaviour based on what we ourselves know and have experienced. In effect, we are imagining how we might behave in similar situations; we are judging behaviour based on our map of the world.

Our understanding of the world and our interaction with the elements of our environment are based on what we have learnt and experienced in the past. Our unique map of the world is what we use to interpret the behaviour of our horses and predict their possible future actions. Essentially we are often guessing why a horse behaves the way it does. Factors such as environment, experience, learnt behaviour and our genetic make up combine to create our personalities and shape the way we behave. Therefore, it follows that our understanding of the world and our experiences will determine how we view the actions of others. We naturally label the actions of our horses depending on our own personalities and beliefs.

This is why the same action in a horse can be interpreted differently by two people who view the action at the same time. We make assumptions about behaviour based on who we are and what we know. The difficulty is in knowing if your map of the world is correct. We each sit in our world believing that we “know” how the world really is. If we do not understand that our maps may need to be redrawn occasionally then we will never question our view of behaviour and interpretation of individual acts of the horse.

Only by being open to the possibility that we are wrong with our interpretation, can we really begin to search for the truth. We must work on developing our balanced view of the world, we must ensure we are learning and growing before we can best guess the actions of our horses.

Our actions in relation to the horse will depend on how we interpret their behaviour. Our interpretation of behaviour can lead us down many different paths which may or may not be the best ones for the horse. So many horse owners feel the internal turmoil of peer pressure. Most livery yards have a splinter group of “experts” ready to pass judgement on every behavioural situation and activity.

The quiet owner trying to do the best for their horse can be bullied into feeling useless, and totally confused to which way to go, which drains self confidence very quickly. Many an expert can have a very convincing argument.

What I often find is that deep down, owners do really know what is right for them and their horse. However, they are just not yet strong enough to believe in themselves enough to act on what they believe.

How do we know what to believe? Firstly don’t believe anyone, not even me. That way we learn to question everything. I don’t mean an aggressive disbelief, or a statement of judgement that all people are liars, just that, at first, do not believe anyone. This includes ourselves; our beliefs that we are not good enough clouds our decisions and makes us lie to ourselves. Don’t judge or accept information immediately, just listen to what we are hearing or what we are thinking and then listen to our inner voice.

The inner voice seems to be the sum of all our knowledge and experience. If we are quiet and still we will know whether what we are hearing is the truth. If we are not hearing our little voice, quietly research the subject as much as we need and then listen for the truth again.

Who we are as people determines who we are as trainers because who we are determines how we perceive the equine and its behaviour. What we believe about the behaviour of equines will determine how we behave towards them. Our behaviour towards our horses will determine how they behave and a self fulfilling prophecy begins.

Many people have experienced the insight that their horse is a mirror for their own behaviour, and they are. We do not need to blame and pass judgement on ourselves for not being good enough. We just need to become aware of our own behaviour. Awareness allows us to choose our actions and reactions. Awareness of our own behaviour is the first step on the path to horsemanship and a deeper trust of ourselves as equine trainers.

Consider the following quotes –

‘Whether you think you can or think you can’t you are probably right.’ – Henry Ford

‘We do not see things as they are we see them as we are.’ – The Talmud

‘Its all a matter of perception.’ – Crawford Hall

When you really believe something, you will behave congruently with that belief.

By Ben Hart

(Thank you to Ben for an interesting article.  Enjoyed this article? Then please donate a little to The Equine Independent to keep us writing without a subscription. You can donate via paypal to mail@theequineindependent.com. Even the smallest amount is greatly appreciated. Thank you for reading from everyone at EI.)

Apr 022010

Presuppositions can be described as central principles or beliefs that provide a guiding philosophy for our lives or systems within which we operate.  They are called ‘presuppositions’ because you pre-suppose them to be true and act as if they were.

Now, there are countless many presuppositions out there which we have all personally formed and live by or which are thrust upon us by others.  In fact, many forms of communication or interaction between parties will contain a presupposition of some kind.

I wonder how many times the question “Good morning, how are you?” has been answered with “Oh, not so good!” much to the askers surprise.  The asker having entered the conversation with a ‘presupposed’ answer of “OK!” as the question was merely a polite greeting.

For the purpose of this article I thought it would be interesting to take a few examples of presuppositions from Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP) and consider how they may affect our thinking when working with clients, colleagues, horses and our ‘self’.  I am going to take the liberty of replacing the word ‘people’ with ‘beings’ where necessary so we might consider the horse too.

My intention is to state the presupposition, provide some explanation and briefly outline possible positive and opposite actions attached.  In doing so I aim to expand thinking and open possibilities for us all.

Beings respond to their experience, not to reality itself

Each being is unique and experiences the world in their own way responding to their own ‘map’ of reality, not to reality itself.  We each have our own set of maps created from experiences, memories and beliefs, but a map can never be completely accurate, just a guide.  We might view training as a way of understanding ours or another’s map and assisting with redrawing it to provide greater freedom of action.

  • Positive:  Respecting other beings beliefs and values.  Allowing them to have their own views while making sure you take care of yourself.
  • Opposite:  Believing that you have the truth and other beings are wrong.  Insisting they see things your way.

Having a choice is better than not having a choice

Having a number of options provides more opportunities for achieving results.  The more choices you have, the freer you are and the more influence you have.

  • Positive:  Always acting to increase your own choice and giving others more choice to develop greater flexibility.
  • Opposite:  Trying to take away a being’s choice when they do not threaten you or anyone else.

Beings make the best choice they can at the time

Given an individual’s map of the world, they make the best choice available at the time.  The choice may seem self-defeating, strange, malicious or just plain ‘stupid’, but for them it is the best way forward.  If given a better choice they will take it.

  • Positive:  Honouring your own and other beings actions as the best they could do at the time.  Realizing that if you had another’s upbringing, experiences and thoughts and were put in the same situation, you would act the same way they did, you are no better than they are.
  • Opposite:  Thinking you are better than others, condemning other’s choices from a superior position with 20/20 hindsight.

Beings work perfectly

No being is broken.  We are all living out the scripts of our lives perfectly, but it may be that the script is poorly written, inappropriate or ineffective for the circumstances we now find ourselves in.

  • Positive:  Seeing every one of your actions as the best you can do, while striving to learn more.  Find out how you and others operate so the script may be rewritten to something more useful.
  • Opposite:  Treating yourself and others as if they are broken and need putting right from a position of superiority.

All actions have a purpose

Actions are not random; we are always trying to achieve something, although we may not be aware of what it is!

  • Positive:  Being clear about your own goals and those of others.  Establish the goal at the end of the action performed and the values driving it.  Develop ways of using these values to create desirable and motivated actions.
  • Opposite:  Drifting randomly as if your actions have no purpose.  Not bothering to find out what other people want.  Using your values to explain others actions.

Every behaviour has a positive intention

A being is not their behaviour, given a better choice of behaviour that also achieves their positive intention, they will take it.

  • Positive:  Acknowledging the positive intention in your own mistakes.  Acknowledging the positive intention behind other beings actions whilst protecting yourself from the consequences.
  • Opposite:  Thinking that you or anyone else is a totally bad person and condemning some actions as having no merit to anyone, however you look at them.

The meaning of the communication is the response you get

While intention may be clear to you, it is the interpretation and response back that reflects the effectiveness of communication.

  • Positive:  Taking responsibility as a good communicator and paying attention to feedback from the other being.  Acknowledging the intentions of others while paying attention to the effect you have on them, as they perceive it.  There is no failure in communication, only responses.  If you are not getting the result you want, change what you are doing.
  • Opposite:  Thinking that when you communicate and the other being does not understand, it is automatically their fault and they are stupid.  Judging others by what you think of them and judging yourself by your own intentions.

We already have all the resources we need or we can create them.

There are no beings that are not capable of resourcefulness, only states of mind that prevent a being from being resourceful.

  • Positive:  Giving others the space, time, environment, help and guidance to find their own solutions.  Knowing you are not helpless, hopeless or undeserving, but stuck in a state of mind that is not resourceful.  Learning to elicit a resourceful state of mind.
  • Opposite:  Believing you are completely dependent on others for motivation, knowledge and approval.  Treating education as a transfer of knowledge from those who have it to those who do not.

Mind and body form a linked system

Mind and body interact and influence each other; it is not possible to make a change in one without a change in the other.  When we think differently our bodies change.  When we act differently our thoughts and feelings change.

  • Positive:  Taking care of our thoughts as well as our bodies, recognizing and avoiding toxic thoughts and toxic states as well as toxic environments.  Use body positioning exercises to influence thoughts and emotions.
  • Opposite:  Using chemical solutions for all physical and mental problems or trying to heal physical illness by purely mental means.

Modelling successful performance leads to excellence

If one being can do something, it is possible to model it and teach it to others.

  • Positive:  Constantly looking for excellence so you can model it.  Noticing your own moments of excellence and modelling them so you can have more of them.  Learning from everyone you meet.
  • Opposite:  Taking ‘in-born talent’ as an explanation for excellent performance.  Not giving people a chance to develop if you think they do not have this mysterious ‘talent’.  Feeling resentful instead of fascinated if someone does something better than you.

If you want to understand, act!

The learning is in the doing.  You do not know what you are capable of or what your limits are until you reach them.

  • Positive:  Constantly testing your limits and testing your beliefs.
  • Opposite:  Claiming plenty of impressive-sounding beliefs and ideals, but never putting them into practice.

My Challenge to you is to not only consider the above but also notice any presuppositions you are operating with and decide if they are useful or not.  Some you may want to keep and some you may want to shelve.  After all, having choice is better than not having choice!

By Damian Stenton


Thank you to Damian for an interesting article on NLP.  Enjoyed this article? Then please donate a little to The Equine Independent to keep us writing without a subscription. You can donate via paypal to mail@theequineindependent.com. Even the smallest amount is greatly appreciated. Thank you for reading from everyone at EI.